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2020年新加坡拍卖精品推荐会------乾隆御制龙凤香炉

发布时间:2020-07-21 09:47来源:
香炉,是香道必备的器具,也是华人民俗、宗教、祭祀活动中必不可少的供具。历代使用的香器包含博山炉、手炉、香斗、卧炉、香筒等不同形制的香炉,以及熏球、香插、香盘、香盒

 


 

香炉,是“香道”必备的器具,也是华人民俗、宗教、祭祀活动中必不可少的供具。历代使用的香器包含博山炉、手炉、香斗、卧炉、香筒等不同形制的香炉,以及熏球、香插、香盘、香盒、香夹、香铲、香匙、香筒及香囊等配套器具,使用的质料主要包括铜、陶瓷、金银、竹木器、珐琅及玉石等。其用途亦有多种,或熏衣﹑或陈设﹑或敬神供佛。

焚香,被赋予了很多超出实用范畴的仪式意义,在最初的时候它就被人们神圣化了。在几个世纪的辗转之中,焚香所用的器具香炉也随着这种仪式,由遥不可及变成了文人把玩器物。香炉的价格一直处于一个稳步攀升的状态,当然,各种材质之间的价格也有颇大差距。古瓷炉收藏的目标年代都集中在宋、元、明、清四朝。2010年12月香港佳士得拍出了一对清雍正的御制掐丝珐琅双鹤香炉,成交价是1.1亿,这是目前为止国内拍卖中的香炉最高价。

一直以来,古瓷炉收藏的目标年代都集中在宋、元、明、清四朝,但宋元明清瓷炉各有不同。宋代之前,香炉作为我国古代传统的实用器主要是用青铜和陶制成;汉代以后,香炉的材质逐渐丰富起来,尤其是在宋代,制瓷业蓬勃发展,名窑辈出,各种仿铜式瓷香炉纷纷问世。其中包括了鼎式香炉、鬲式香炉、奁式香炉(奁,音同“连”)、鱼耳香炉、三足香炉等多种样式。从此,以瓷为材质的瓷香炉逐渐取代了陶制和铜香炉,成为香炉的主流,并开始出现在大宋帝王的内庭,逐渐成了上层人士高雅的把玩之物。一时间,炉文化成为文人雅士的一种时尚,置炉和赏炉成为一种文人品位的体现,其独特的文化特色使香炉成为当时代表新文化的典型器物,所以具有很高的艺术和收藏价值。

到了元、明、清,瓷炉逐渐由上流社会赏玩为主转向用于祈神供祖为主,观赏的功能也逐渐降为从属地位,在器形和釉色上有了逐步的改变。元代瓷炉基本上是保留了宋代瓷炉风格,但在数量和品种上有所增长,以中小型香炉为主,器形以三足圆炉和鬲式炉较为多见;明代则出现了如象耳炉、戟耳炉、筒炉等新的造型,在色彩上,由单色釉变为以青花为主流装饰,青花瓷成为主要工艺;到了清代,则以钵式炉为主。因此,简而言之,宋元时期的瓷炉以青瓷香炉和窑变釉香炉为主,而明清时期则以青花香炉为主,红釉香炉也较为常见。同时从元、明、清时代开始,瓷炉大量走入寻常百姓之家。除官窑外,民窑也广泛制作,在民间,百姓都使用民窑生产的瓷炉用于烧香祈福。

乾隆御制的铜香炉被全世界收藏家视为最高端和精美的器物。而造成乾隆御制铜香炉的价格水涨船高的原因无非就是:在艺术品市场竞争日益激烈的今天,而铜器作为艺术品之中的佼佼者更加受人瞩目。这样一个精美绝伦的御制铜香炉,在乾隆时期足以反映中国封建时期的工艺精湛,制品完美,其收藏价值和历史价值更加不容忽视。另外,乾隆盛世以后,由于明清铜炉历史上经历诸多劫难,损失惨重,造成后仿炉和私款炉也已成为珍罕的历史文物。

The incense burner is an indispensable tool for the "incense Tao", and it is also an indispensable tool for the Chinese people's custom, religious and sacrificial activities. Incense instruments used in the past dynasties include Boshan furnace, hand furnace, incense bucket, lying furnace, incense tube and other different forms of incense burner, as well as smoked ball, incense stick, incense plate, incense box, incense clip, incense shovel, incense spoon, incense tube and Sachets and other supporting utensils mainly use materials such as copper, ceramics, gold and silver, bamboo and wood, enamel and jade. There are also many uses, such as lavender, furnishings, or worshipping the gods and offering Buddha. The shape is usually square or round. A square incense burner generally has four legs; a round incense burner has three legs, one leg in the front and two legs in the back.

Burning incense has been given a lot of ritual meaning beyond the practical category, and it was sacred by people at the beginning. In the course of centuries, the censer used to incense incense has also been followed by this ritual, from being out of reach to being used by literati. The price of incense burners has been in a state of steadily rising, of course, there is a big gap between the prices of various materials. The target ages for the collection of ancient porcelain furnaces are concentrated in the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. In December 2010, Christie’s Hong Kong sold a pair of imperial cloisonné enamel double crane incense burners from the Yongzheng period of the Qing Dynasty. The transaction price was 110 million, which is the highest price of incense burners in domestic auction so far.


 

The target ages of ancient porcelain furnace collections have been concentrated in the Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties, but the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing porcelain furnaces are different. Before the Song Dynasty, the incense burner was mainly made of bronze and pottery as a traditional ancient Chinese utility. After the Han Dynasty, the material of the incense burner gradually became richer. Especially in the Song Dynasty, the porcelain industry flourished and famous kilns appeared in large numbers. Porcelain incense burners have come out. Including tripod-style incense burner, 鬲-style incense burner, Xian-style incense burner (Xian, sound with "lian"), fish ear incense burner, three-legged incense burner and so on. From then on, porcelain incense burners made of porcelain gradually replaced pottery and copper incense burners, becoming the mainstream of incense burners, and began to appear in the inner courts of the emperors of Song Dynasty, and gradually became the elegant objects of the upper class. For a time, furnace culture became a fashion for literati, and furnace setting and appreciation became a manifestation of literati’s taste. Its unique cultural characteristics made the incense burner a typical artifact representing the new culture at that time, so it had a high artistic and collection value. .


 

In the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties, porcelain stoves gradually shifted from being mainly used for fun in the upper class to praying for gods and offerings to the ancestors. The viewing function was gradually reduced to a subordinate position, and the shape and glaze color of the ware gradually changed. The porcelain stove of the Yuan Dynasty basically retained the style of the porcelain stove of the Song Dynasty, but increased in number and variety. The main types of small and medium-sized incense burners were three-foot round stoves and Li-style stoves. It appeared in the Ming Dynasty. New shapes such as elephant ear furnaces, halberd furnaces, and tube furnaces have changed from monochromatic glaze to blue and white as the mainstream decoration, and blue and white porcelain has become the main craft; in the Qing Dynasty, bowl furnaces were the main ones. Therefore, in short, the porcelain furnaces in the Song and Yuan dynasties were dominated by celadon incense burners and kiln glazed incense burners, while in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, blue and white incense burners were dominated, and red glazed incense burners were also more common. At the same time, since the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, porcelain stoves have entered the homes of ordinary people. In addition to official kilns, civil kilns are also widely produced. In the folk, people use porcelain furnaces produced in civil kilns to burn incense and pray for blessings.


 

The copper incense burner made by Qianlong is regarded as the most high-end and exquisite artifacts by collectors all over the world. The reason why the price of Qianlong's imperial copper incense burner has risen is nothing more than that: In today's increasingly fierce competition in the art market, copper ware has attracted more attention as a leader in art. Such an exquisite imperial copper incense burner during the Qianlong period can reflect the exquisite craftsmanship and perfect products of the Chinese feudal period. Its collection value and historical value cannot be ignored. In addition, after Qianlong's heyday, due to many disasters and heavy losses in the history of Ming and Qing copper furnaces, the back imitation furnaces and private furnaces have become rare historical relics.

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